Exclusive: Louise Gray, in Glasgow
Scientists and farmers are angry that UK diplomats at the recent COP26 climate talks in Glasgow failed to include cutting nitrogen pollution as part of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
To achieve the goal, greenhouse gases will have to be brought down to net zero by 2050 at the latest. But scientists say a key opportunity to reduce greenhouse gases was missed by the UK presidency in charge of the talks, and it’s an areas that directly relates to farming.
The Nitrogen4NetZero initiative was put forward by the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI), a group of scientists concerned about the impact of nitrogen pollution on human health, climate change and biodiversity. The group point out that nitrous oxide has 300 times the warming potential of carbon dioxide.
The initiative, which proposes halving nitrogen waste by 2030, had already gained support from several countries in south Asia, led by Sri Lanka, and there was hope more might sign up.
In contrast, a pledge to cut methane by 30 per cent was promoted at COP26 and resulted in more than 100 countries signing up.
Yet the UK chose not to put forward the Nitrogen4NetZero, a similar initiative, and use the impetus of hosting the high profile talks to ask more countries to join.
“You cannot reach net zero without cutting nitrogen pollution,” said Professor Mark Sutton, chair of the INI, who told Wicked Leeks he was “depressed by the lost opportunity”. “The UK had one chance to get nitrogen on the table and they missed it,” he said.
The main source of nitrogen pollution is nitrous oxide that enters the atmosphere after artificial nitrogen fertiliser is applied to the soil. This could be reduced by using natural fertilisers, such as crops that ‘fix’ nitrogen into the soil, like clover, and precision farming, where farmers might use GPS on tractors to apply nitrogen fertiliser only where it is needed.
It comes as a recent report released during COP26 identified the production and application of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers as “a major driver of the climate crisis”.
Jo Lewis, policy director at the Soil Association, was also disappointed in the failure to talk about artificial fertiliser and intensive livestock production at COP26.
She said: “Farming’s reliance on soya as animal feed and energy intensive artificial fertilisers are key drivers of global deforestation and nitrous oxide emissions. We must radically reduce reliance on harmful chemical inputs and curb our insatiable appetite for animals that have been fed with soya from South America.”
It was hoped the UN’s earlier efforts to bring farming into the climate change talks, the Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture would be concluded at COP26, but the process, including efforts to bring agroecology into discussions, is ongoing.
Ceris Jones, climate change advisor at the National Farmers Union, said the talks were “disappointing”. She said efforts by the NFU to present some of the solutions farmers could offer in cutting greenhouse gases were not given enough prominence.
“Agriculture is a sink as well as a source of greenhouse gases and it simply was not talked about enough,” she said.
Feedback, the environmental and food waste charity, said COP26 had failed to do enough to reduce emissions from the food sector, including methane from food waste and animal agriculture.
Pete Ritchie, an organic farmer and director of Nourish Scotland, said food systems as a whole were neglected at COP26, including the management of nitrogen.
He said efforts must now focus on ensuring farming and food systems are top of the agenda at COP27, in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt. “Food systems will have to be absolutely central to the next COP,” he said.
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